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  • 1 - Instrumentation
  • 2 - Reagents
  • 3 - Data analysis
  • 4 - Experimental Design
  • 5 - Flow Cytometry
  • 6 - Microscopy
  • Assays
  • Cell Sorting

Phosphate Buffer

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD PBS is the acronym for phosphate buffered saline. Phosphate buffer is one of the most common buffers used in biological research.  The phosphate serves as a buffer to keep the pH constant, while the saline...

What Is Autofluorescence

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD What is autofluorescence? Autofluorescence is the term given to describe the natural fluorescence that occurs in cells. The common compounds that give rise to this fluorescence signal include cyclic ring compounds like NAD(P)H, Collagen, and...

What Is Dynamic Range

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD Dynamic range is the total range of fluorescent values obtained from a particular flow cytometry assay. It is defined as the ratio of the largest possible fluorescent signal to the smallest possible fluorescent signal. The...

What Is A Fluorescence Minus One, or FMO Control

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD The Fluorescence Minus One Control, or FMO control is a type of control used to properly interpret flow cytometry data.  It is used to identify and gate cells in the context of data spread due...

What Is Sheath Fluid

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD Sheath fluid is the solution that runs in a flow cytometer.  Once the sheath fluid is running at laminar flow, the cells are injected into the center of the stream, at a slightly higher pressure....

What Is A Sample Injection Port

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD In flow cytometry, cells, in suspension are moved from the tube to the interrogation point and finally into the waste (or to be sorted, but that is a different story).  To do this, the fluidics...

What Is An Isotype Control

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD Do you know what an isotype control is? Isotype refers to the genetic variation in the heavy and light chains that make up the whole antibody moiety. In mammals, there are 9 possible heavy chain...

What Is Titration

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD Titration is the process of identifying the best concentration to use an antibody for a given assay. While the vendor will provide a specific concentration to use, this may not be appropriate for your assay....

Differential Pressure

Written by Tim Bushnell, PhD Differential pressure based flow cytometers currently dominate the market. These systems have two pressure regulators. The first is at a constant pressure that sets how fast the fluids runs at. The second is regulated by...


Advanced Microscopy

Learn the best practices and advanced techniques across the diverse fields of microscopy, including instrumentation, experimental setup, image analysis, figure preparation, and more.

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Modern Flow Cytometry

Learn the best practices of flow cytometry experimentation, data analysis, figure preparation, antibody panel design, instrumentation and more. 

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Advanced 4-10 Color Compensation

Advanced 4-10 Color Compensation, Learn strategies for designing advanced antibody compensation panels and how to use your compensation matrix to analyze your experimental data.

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