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Forward scatter detectors collect light at small angles relative to the incident beam and can take advantage of the fact that cells preferentially scatter light in this “forward” direction. Forward scattered light is traditionally and often effectively measured with a photodiode, rather than the more sensitive photomultiplier used to measure fluorescence and side scatter. Scatter gets dim very quickly when particles have diameters below the wavelength of illuminating light, considering that scatter intensity decreases with a dependence on r6 of the particle. Here’s how small particles affect light scatter.

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The T-Test compares the differences between the means of two populations to determine if the null hypothesis should be rejected. At a minimum, to perform the T-Test, one needs the means and standard deviations of both populations, and the number of measurements. The researcher also needs to set the threshold value, also termed the α. Then, you will compare this threshold to the P-value. If the P-value is greater than the α, there is no significance in the data. However, if the P-value is less than the α, there is significance in the data. Here’s how to run a T-Test.

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